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Intradural AVF below the conus medullaris may develop either on the filum terminale or the cauda equina (lumbosacral and coccygeal radicular nerves). Although not a few filum terminale AVFs are found in the literature, only 3 detailed cauda equina AVFs have been reported. Here, we analyze the angiographic and MR imaging findings of our cauda equina and filum terminale AVF cases, supplemented with literature research to characterize the radiologic features of the 2 entities. On angiography, filum terminale AVFs were invariably supplied by the extension of the anterior spinal artery accompanied by a closely paralleling filum terminale vein. Cauda equina AVFs were fed by either a radicular or a spinal artery or both arteries, often with a characteristic wavy radicular-perimedullary draining vein. On thin-section axial MR imaging, the filum terminale AVF draining vein joined the spinal cord at the conus medullaris apex, but that of the cauda equina AVF joined above the conus medullaris apex.
Middle cranial fossa encephaloceles are an increasingly recognized cause of epilepsy; however, they are also often encountered on neuroimaging in patients with no history of seizure. We characterized the MR imaging features of middle cranial fossa encephaloceles in seizure and nonseizure groups with the hope of uncovering features predictive of epileptogenicity.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Seventy-seven patients with middle cranial fossa encephaloceles were prospectively identified during routine clinical practice of neuroradiology at a tertiary care hospital during an 18-month period. Thirty-five of 77 (45%) had a history of seizure, 20/77 (26%) had temporal lobe epilepsy, and 42/77 (55%) had no history of seizures. Middle cranial fossa encephalocele features on MR imaging were characterized, including depth, area, number, location, presence of adjacent encephalomalacia, and degree of associated parenchymal morphologic distortion. MR imaging features were compared between the seizure and nonseizure groups.RESULTS:
No significant difference in MR imaging features of middle cranial fossa encephaloceles was seen when comparing the seizure and nonseizure groups. Comparison of just those patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 20) with those with no history of seizure (n = 42) also found no significant difference in MR imaging features.CONCLUSIONS:
Anatomic MR imaging features of middle cranial fossa encephaloceles such as size, number, adjacent encephalomalacia, and the degree of adjacent parenchymal morphologic distortion may not be useful in predicting likelihood of epileptogenicity.
Infratentorial and spinal cord lesions are important for diagnosing and monitoring multiple sclerosis, but they are difficult to detect on conventional MR imaging. We sought to improve the detection of infratentorial and upper cervical cord lesions using composite FLAIR3 images.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
3D T2-weighted FLAIR and 3D T2-weighted images were acquired in 30 patients with MS and combined using the FLAIR3 formula. FLAIR3 was assessed against 3D T2-FLAIR by comparing the number of infratentorial and upper cervical cord lesions per subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Intrarater and interrater reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The number of patients with and without ≥1 visible infratentorial/spinal cord lesion on 3D T2-FLAIR versus FLAIR3 was calculated to assess the potential impact on the revised MS diagnostic criteria.RESULTS:
Compared with 3D T2-FLAIR, FLAIR3 detected significantly more infratentorial (mean, 4.6 ± 3.6 versus 2.0 ± 1.8, P < .001) and cervical cord (mean, 1.58 ± 0.94 versus 0.46 ± 0.45, P < .001) lesions per subject. FLAIR3 demonstrated significantly improved interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.63–0.87] versus 0.60 [95% CI, 0.40–0.76] with 3D T2-FLAIR, P = .019) and a tendency toward a higher intrarater reliability (0.86 [95% CI, 0.73–0.93] versus 0.79 [95% CI, 0.61–0.89], P = .23). In our cohort, 20%–30% (47%–67%) of the subjects with MS had ≥ 1 infratentorial (cervical cord) lesion visible only on FLAIR3.CONCLUSIONS:
FLAIR3 provides higher sensitivity than T2-FLAIR for the detection of MS lesions in infratentorial brain parenchyma and the upper cervical cord.