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Prior studies have evaluated cochlear length using CT to select the most suitable cochlear implants and obtain patient-specific anatomy. This study aimed to test the accuracy and reliability of cochlear lateral wall length measurements using 3D MR imaging.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Two observers measured the cochlear lateral wall length of 35 patients (21 men) with postlingual hearing loss using CT and MR imaging. The intraclass correlation coefficient (with 95% confidence intervals) was used to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver reliability for the 3D cochlear measurements.RESULTS:
The mean age of the participants was 39.85 (SD, 16.60) years. Observer 1 measured the mean lateral wall length as 41.52 (SD, 2.25) mm on CT and 41.44 (SD, 2.18) mm on MR imaging, with a mean difference of 0.08 mm (95% CI, –0.11 to 0.27 mm), while observer 2 measured the mean lateral wall length as 41.74 (SD, 2.69) mm on CT and 42.34 (SD, 2.53) mm on MR imaging, with a mean difference of –0.59 mm (95% CI, –1.00 to –0.20 mm). An intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84–0.94) for CT and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.46–0.82) for MR imaging was obtained for the interobserver reliability for the full-turn cochlear lateral wall length.CONCLUSIONS:
CT-based 3D cochlear measurements show excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability, while MR imaging–based lateral wall length measurements have good-to-excellent intraobserver reliability and moderate interobserver reliability. These results corroborate the use of CT for 3D cochlear measurements as a reference method and demonstrate MR imaging to be an alternative acquisition technique with comparably reliable results.
The golden-angle radial sparse parallel-volumetric interpolated breath-hold (GRASP-VIBE) sequence is a recently introduced imaging technique with high resolution. This study compared the image quality between conventional fat-suppressed T1-weighted TSE and GRASP-VIBE after gadolinium enhancement in the head and neck region.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Data from 65 patients with clinical indications for head and neck MR imaging between September 2020 and January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists assessed the overall image quality, overall artifacts, and image conspicuities in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and cervical lymph nodes according to 5-point scores (best score: 5). Interobserver agreement was assessed using weighted statistics. The SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated and compared between the 2 sequences using a paired Wilcoxon signed rank test.RESULTS:
The analysis included 52 patients (mean age, 60 [SD, 14 ] years; male, 71.2% [37/52]) who were mostly diagnosed with head and neck malignancies (94.3% [50/52]). statistics ranged from slight agreement in cervical lymph node conspicuity ( = 0.18) to substantial agreement in oropharyngeal mucosal conspicuity ( = 0.80) ( range, 0.18–0.80). Moreover, GRASP-VIBE demonstrated significantly higher mean scores in overall image quality (4.68 [SD, 0.41] versus 3.66 [SD, 0.73]), artifacts (4.47 [SD, 0.48] versus 3.58 [SD, 0.71]), oropharyngeal mucosal conspicuity (4.85 [SD, 0.41] versus 4.11 [SD, 0.79]), hypopharyngeal mucosal conspicuity (4.84 [SD, 0.34] versus 3.58 [SD, 0.81]), and cervical lymph node conspicuity (4.79 [SD, 0.32] versus 4.08 [SD, 0.64]) than fat-suppressed T1-weighted TSE (all, P < .001). Furthermore, GRASP-VIBE demonstrated a higher SNR (22.8 [SD, 11.5] versus 11.3 [SD, 5.6], P < .001) and contrast-to-noise ratio (4.7 [SD, 5.4] versus 2.3 [SD, 2.7], P = .059) than fat-suppressed T1-weighted TSE.CONCLUSIONS:
GRASP-VIBE provided better image quality with fewer artifacts than conventional fat-suppressed T1-weighted TSE for the head and neck regions.
Selective voluntary motor control is an important factor influencing gross motor function, interjoint coordination, and the outcome of hamstring-lengthening surgery in spastic cerebral palsy. Using DTI, we investigated whether selective voluntary motor control would show strong correlations with WM motor tract microstructure and whether selective voluntary motor control is more sensitive to global WM impairment than gross motor function.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy born preterm and typically developing children were recruited. The Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE) and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) were assessed in participants with cerebral palsy. Participants underwent brain MR imaging to collect DWI data. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to analyze the WM for between-group differences and correlations with SCALE and GMFM. ROI analyses compared motor regions.RESULTS:
Twelve children with cerebral palsy (mean age, 11.5 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age, 10.3 years) participated. Altered DTI outcomes were found throughout the whole brain for the cerebral palsy group. SCALE, developed to evaluate selective voluntary motor control in cerebral palsy, showed significant positive correlations with fractional anisotropy in more WM voxels throughout the whole brain and for motor regions, including the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum, compared with GMFM. A significant negative correlation between radial diffusivity and SCALE, but not GMFM, was found within the corpus callosum.CONCLUSIONS:
SCALE was a more sensitive clinical correlate of motor and whole-brain WM tract impairment in children with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy, suggesting greater anisotropy and myelination in these regions for those with higher selective voluntary motor control.
We compared velocity pulsatility, distensibility, and pulsatility attenuation along the intracranial ICA and MCA between 50 patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum and 40 controls. Patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum had higher pulsatility and lower distensibility at all measured locations, except for a similar distensibility at C4. The pulsatility attenuation over the siphon was similar between patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum and controls. This finding suggests that other disease mechanisms are the main contributors to increased intracranial pulsatility in pseudoxanthoma elasticum.
The persistent challenges in thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion, such as suboptimal complete recanalization and first-pass effect imply an insufficient understanding of the artery-clot-device interaction. In this study, we present a thrombectomy model using fresh human brains, which can capture the artery-clot-device interaction through concurrent transmural and angiographic visualizations.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Fresh nonfrozen whole adult human brains were collected and connected to a customized pump system tuned to deliver saline flow at a physiologic flow rate and pressure. Angiography was performed to verify the flow in the anterior-posterior and vertebrobasilar circulations and collaterals. Large-vessel occlusion was simulated by embolizing a radiopaque clot analog. Thrombectomy was tested, and the artery-clot-device interactions were recorded by transmural and angiographic videos.RESULTS:
Baseline cerebral angiography revealed excellent penetration of contrast in the anterior-posterior and vertebrobasilar circulations without notable arterial cutoffs and with robust collaterals. Small branches (<0.5 mm) and perforating arteries were consistently opacified with good patency. Three device passes were performed to achieve recanalization, with failure modes including elongation, fragmentation, and distal embolization.CONCLUSIONS:
This model enables concurrent transmural and angiographic analysis of artery-clot-device interaction in a human brain and provides critical insights into the action mechanism and failure modes of current and upcoming thrombectomy devices.