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A uniform description of brain MR imaging findings in infants with severe congenital heart disease to assess risk factors, predict outcome, and compare centers is lacking. Our objective was to uniformly describe the spectrum of perioperative brain MR imaging findings in infants with congenital heart disease.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Prospective observational studies were performed at 3 European centers between 2009 and 2019. Brain MR imaging was performed preoperatively and/or postoperatively in infants with transposition of the great arteries, single-ventricle physiology, or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction undergoing cardiac surgery within the first 6 weeks of life. Brain injury was assessed on T1, T2, DWI, SWI, and MRV. A subsample of images was assessed jointly to reach a consensus.RESULTS:
A total of 348 MR imaging scans (180 preoperatively, 168 postoperatively, 146 pre- and postoperatively) were obtained in 202 infants. Preoperative, new postoperative, and cumulative postoperative white matter injury was identified in 25%, 30%, and 36%; arterial ischemic stroke, in 6%, 10%, and 14%; hypoxic-ischemic watershed injury in 2%, 1%, and 1%; intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage, in 0%, 4%, and 5%; cerebellar hemorrhage, in 6%, 2%, and 6%; intraventricular hemorrhage, in 14%, 6%, and 13%; subdural hemorrhage, in 29%, 17%, and 29%; and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, in 0%, 10%, and 10%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:
A broad spectrum of perioperative brain MR imaging findings was found in infants with severe congenital heart disease. We propose an MR imaging protocol including T1-, T2-, diffusion-, and susceptibility-weighted imaging, and MRV to identify ischemic, hemorrhagic, and thrombotic lesions observed in this patient group.
While changes in ventricular and extraventricular CSF spaces have been studied following shunt placement in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, regional changes in cortical volumes have not. These changes are important to better inform disease pathophysiology and evaluation for copathology. The purpose of this work is to investigate changes in ventricular and cortical volumes in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus following ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus who underwent 3D T1-weighted MR imaging before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Images were analyzed using tensor-based morphometry with symmetric normalization to determine the percentage change in ventricular and regional cortical volumes. Ventricular volume changes were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and cortical volume changes, using a linear mixed-effects model (P < .05).RESULTS:
The study included 22 patients (5 women/17 men; mean age, 73 [SD, 6] years). Ventricular volume decreased after shunt placement with a mean change of –15.4% (P < .001). Measured cortical volume across all participants and cortical ROIs showed a mean percentage increase of 1.4% (P < .001). ROIs near the vertex showed the greatest percentage increase in volume after shunt placement, with smaller decreases in volume in the medial temporal lobes.CONCLUSIONS:
Overall, cortical volumes mildly increased after shunt placement in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with the greatest increases in regions near the vertex, indicating postshunt decompression of the cortex and sulci. Ventricular volumes showed an expected decrease after shunt placement.
Posterior fossa type A (PFA) ependymomas have 2 molecular subgroups (PFA-1 and PFA-2) and 9 subtypes. Gene expression profiling suggests that PFA-1 and PFA-2 tumors have distinct developmental origins at different rostrocaudal levels of the brainstem. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that PFA-1 and PFA-2 ependymomas have different anatomic MR imaging characteristics at presentation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Two neuroradiologists reviewed the preoperative MR imaging examinations of 122 patients with PFA ependymomas and identified several anatomic characteristics, including extension through the fourth ventricular foramina and encasement of major arteries and tumor type (midfloor, roof, or lateral). Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation profiling assigned ependymomas to PFA-1 or PFA-2. Information on PFA subtype from an earlier study was also available for a subset of tumors. Associations between imaging variables and subgroup or subtype were evaluated.RESULTS:
No anatomic imaging variable was significantly associated with the PFA subgroup, but 5 PFA-2c subtype ependymomas in the cohort had a more circumscribed appearance and showed less tendency to extend through the fourth ventricular foramina or encase blood vessels, compared with other PFA subtypes.CONCLUSIONS:
PFA-1 and PFA-2 ependymomas did not have different anatomic MR imaging characteristics, and these results do not support the hypothesis that they have distinct anatomic origins. PFA-2c ependymomas appear to have a more anatomically circumscribed MR imaging appearance than the other PFA subtypes; however, this needs to be confirmed in a larger study.
The hemodynamics associated with cerebral AVMs have a significant impact on their clinical presentation. This study aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic features of AVMs using 3D phase-contrast MR imaging with dual velocity-encodings.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Thirty-two patients with supratentorial AVMs who had not received any previous treatment and had undergone 3D phase-contrast MR imaging were included in this study. The nidus diameter and volume were measured for classification of AVMs (small, medium, or large). Flow parameters measured included apparent AVM inflow, AVM inflow index, apparent AVM outflow, AVM outflow index, and the apparent AVM inflow-to-outflow ratio. Correlation coefficients between the nidus volume and each flow were calculated. The flow parameters between small and other AVMs as well as between nonhemorrhagic and hemorrhagic AVMs were compared.RESULTS:
Patients were divided into hemorrhagic (n = 8) and nonhemorrhagic (n = 24) groups. The correlation coefficient between the nidus volume and the apparent AVM inflow and outflow was .83. The apparent AVM inflow and outflow in small AVMs were significantly smaller than in medium AVMs (P < .001 for both groups). The apparent AVM inflow-to-outflow ratio was significantly larger in the hemorrhagic AVMs than in the nonhemorrhagic AVMs (P = .02).CONCLUSIONS:
The apparent AVM inflow-to-outflow ratio was the only significant parameter that differed between nonhemorrhagic and hemorrhagic AVMs, suggesting that a poor drainage system may increase AVM pressure, potentially causing cerebral hemorrhage.
Intracranial dural AVFs are abnormal communications between arteries that supply the dura mater and draining cortical veins or venous sinuses. They are believed to form as a response to venous insults such as thrombosis, trauma, or infection. Classification and management are dependent on the presence of drainage/reflux into cortical veins because such drainage markedly elevates the risk of hemorrhage or venous congestion, resulting in neurologic deficits. AVFs with tolerable symptoms and benign drainage patterns can be managed conservatively. Intolerable symptoms, presentation with hemorrhage/neurologic deficits, or aggressive drainage patterns are indications for intervention. Treatment options include microsurgical disconnection, endovascular transarterial embolization, transvenous embolization, or a combination. This is the first in a series of 3 articles on endovascular management of intracranial dural AVFs, in which we outline the principles and outcomes of endovascular treatment.