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Woven EndoBridge (WEB) devices are increasingly used to treat intracranial aneurysms. A1 asymmetry contributes to anterior communicating artery aneurysm formation and to treatment instability after coiling. We sought to evaluate whether A1 asymmetry had an impact on angiographic outcome in anterior communicating artery aneurysms treated with the WEB.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Anterior communicating artery aneurysms treated between July 2012 and July 2020 with the WEB from an institutional review board–approved database were reviewed. A1 asymmetry was categorized as the following: absence of the A1 segment on 1 side (unilateral A1) versus bilateral A1. Univariate and multivariable analyses assessed independent predictors of adequate (WEB Occlusion Scale A, B, and C) and complete occlusion (WEB Occlusion Scale A and B).RESULTS:
Forty-eight individual aneurysms (47 patients) were included in the final analysis, of which 16 (33%) were acutely ruptured. The mean size was 6.5 (SD, 2.2) mm. Adequate and complete occlusion was achieved in 33 (69%) and 30 (63%) cases, respectively. Unilateral A1 was associated with significantly higher rates of adequate (92% versus 60% for bilateral A1; P = .03) and complete occlusion (92% versus 50% for bilateral A1; P < .01). Multivariable logistic regression confirmed unilateral A1 as an independent predictor of both adequate (OR = 10.6; 95% CI, 1.6–220.7; P = .04) and complete occlusion (OR = 9.5, 95% CI, 1.5–190.2; P = .04. A sensitivity analysis comparing unilateral "functional" A1 with bilateral "functional" A1 showed similar results. WEB shape modification was not influenced by the unilateral A1 configuration (P = .70).CONCLUSIONS:
Anterior communicating artery aneurysms with a unilateral A1 configuration treated with WEB devices are associated with better angiographic outcome than those with bilateral A1. This finding supports the hypothesis that WEB devices are resistant to unilateral flow in the aneurysm as opposed to coils.
Transient loss of consciousness is commonly evaluated in the emergency department. Although typically caused by epileptic seizure, syncope, or psychogenic nonepileptic seizure, the underlying etiology is frequently misdiagnosed. Lateral tongue bites are reportedly a specific clinical finding of seizure. We have observed tongue signal abnormality suggesting bite injury on brain MR imaging after seizures. We hypothesized an association between tongue signal abnormality and seizure diagnosis among patients in the emergency department imaged for transient loss of consciousness. Our purposes were to determine the prevalence of tongue signal abnormality among this population and the predictive performance for seizure diagnosis.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
For this retrospective study including 82 brain MR imaging examinations, 2 readers independently assessed tongue signal abnormality on T2-weighted and T2-weighted FLAIR images. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus, and interrater reliability (Cohen ) was calculated. The final diagnosis was recorded. Proportions were compared using the Fisher exact test.RESULTS:
Tongue signal abnormality was present on 19/82 (23%) MR imaging examinations. Interrater reliability was "substantial" ( = 0.77). Seizure was diagnosed among 18/19 (95%) patients with tongue signal abnormality and 29/63 (46%) patients without it (P < .001). In our cohort, tongue signal abnormality conveyed 97% specificity, 95% positive predictive value, and 63% accuracy for seizure diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS:
Tongue signal abnormality was observed in 23% of the study cohort and conveyed 97% specificity and 95% positive predictive value for seizure diagnosis. By assessing and reporting tongue signal abnormality, radiologists may facilitate a timely and accurate diagnosis of seizure among patients imaged for transient loss of consciousness.
The modified TICI Infarction grading system is a metric currently used to evaluate angiographic results of thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke. Originally designed for evaluating MCA territories, it is currently used for other vessel occlusions, including the posterior circulation. We postulate that the modified TICI use for the posterior circulation is not accurate due to the different vascular territories supplied by vertebrobasilar vasculature, making grading more complex.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We collected angiographic results from 30 patients who presented with acute posterior circulation occlusions between 2015 and 2018 and underwent thrombectomy in our institution. Eight observers were asked to evaluate the TICI scores before and after thrombectomy. The multirater statistics were computed using Fleiss analysis. Further data were collected regarding the potential brain territories at risk and the existence of atherosclerotic disease in the basilar artery.RESULTS:
The overall agreement reached 0.277 (SD, 0.013), which suggests a "fair" agreement among the raters. On average, 45% of observers achieved a high accuracy in predicting brain areas at risk of ischemia. As for the existence of basilar atherosclerotic disease, a high agreement (defined as at least 5 of 6 observers) was seen in 20 of the 30 patients.CONCLUSIONS:
Despite TICI being ubiquitous in stroke diagnostics, the high variability of posterior circulation TICI scores calls into question its use in these strokes. Other methods should be developed to assess recanalization in the posterior circulation.
Rescue endovascular and pharmacologic approaches are increasingly being adopted after recanalization failure of acute large-vessel occlusion strokes with mechanical thrombectomy, with encouraging results. The safety and efficacy of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in ischemic stroke have been investigated, though cangrelor, a recent intravenous P2Y12-receptor inhibitor with a rapid onset/offset of action and a short half-life, may be a valuable option. We compared the safety and efficacy of cangrelor with those of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors for refractory occlusions.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We performed a retrospective analysis of the ongoing prospective, multicenter, observational Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke Registry in France between May 2012 and February 2020. Refractory intracranial occlusions of the anterior and posterior circulation were included and defined as recanalization failure of large-vessel occlusion stroke, perioperative target artery reocclusion, or high risk of early reocclusion related to an arterial wall lesion. The primary end point was a favorable outcome, defined as a 90-day mRS of 0–2. Secondary end points were reperfusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and procedural complications.RESULTS:
Among 69 patients, 15 were treated with cangrelor, and 54, with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The favorable outcome (adjusted OR = 2.22; 95% CI, 0.42–11.75; P = .348) and mortality (adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.06–3.16; P = .411) rates were similar in both groups. There was no difference in the rates of any intracranial hemorrhage (adjusted OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.08–2.09; P = .280), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (6.7% versus 0.0%, P = .058), or procedural complications (6.7% versus 20.4%, P = .215). Reperfusion rates were higher in the cangrelor group, though the difference did not reach statistical significance (93.3% versus 75.0% for modified TICI 2b–3; adjusted OR =10.88; 95% CI, 0.96–123.84; P = .054).CONCLUSIONS:
Cangrelor seems to be as safe as glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors for managing refractory intracranial occlusion and leads to satisfactory brain reperfusion. Cangrelor is a promising agent in this setting, and additional studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
Artificial intelligence decision support systems are a rapidly growing class of tools to help manage ever-increasing imaging volumes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an artificial intelligence decision support system, Aidoc, for the detection of cervical spinal fractures on noncontrast cervical spine CT scans and to conduct a failure mode analysis to identify areas of poor performance.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This retrospective study included 1904 emergent noncontrast cervical spine CT scans of adult patients (60 [SD, 22] years, 50.3% men). The presence of cervical spinal fracture was determined by Aidoc and an attending neuroradiologist; discrepancies were independently adjudicated. Algorithm performance was assessed by calculation of the diagnostic accuracy, and a failure mode analysis was performed.RESULTS:
Aidoc and the neuroradiologist’s interpretation were concordant in 91.5% of cases. Aidoc correctly identified 67 of 122 fractures (54.9%) with 106 false-positive flagged studies. Diagnostic performance was calculated as the following: sensitivity, 54.9% (95% CI, 45.7%–63.9%); specificity, 94.1% (95% CI, 92.9%–95.1%); positive predictive value, 38.7% (95% CI, 33.1%–44.7%); and negative predictive value, 96.8% (95% CI, 96.2%–97.4%). Worsened performance was observed in the detection of chronic fractures; differences in diagnostic performance were not altered by study indication or patient characteristics.CONCLUSIONS:
We observed poor diagnostic accuracy of an artificial intelligence decision support system for the detection of cervical spine fractures. Many similar algorithms have also received little or no external validation, and this study raises concerns about their generalizability, utility, and rapid pace of deployment. Further rigorous evaluations are needed to understand the weaknesses of these tools before widespread implementation.