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We compared velocity pulsatility, distensibility, and pulsatility attenuation along the intracranial ICA and MCA between 50 patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum and 40 controls. Patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum had higher pulsatility and lower distensibility at all measured locations, except for a similar distensibility at C4. The pulsatility attenuation over the siphon was similar between patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum and controls. This finding suggests that other disease mechanisms are the main contributors to increased intracranial pulsatility in pseudoxanthoma elasticum.
The persistent challenges in thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion, such as suboptimal complete recanalization and first-pass effect imply an insufficient understanding of the artery-clot-device interaction. In this study, we present a thrombectomy model using fresh human brains, which can capture the artery-clot-device interaction through concurrent transmural and angiographic visualizations.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Fresh nonfrozen whole adult human brains were collected and connected to a customized pump system tuned to deliver saline flow at a physiologic flow rate and pressure. Angiography was performed to verify the flow in the anterior-posterior and vertebrobasilar circulations and collaterals. Large-vessel occlusion was simulated by embolizing a radiopaque clot analog. Thrombectomy was tested, and the artery-clot-device interactions were recorded by transmural and angiographic videos.RESULTS:
Baseline cerebral angiography revealed excellent penetration of contrast in the anterior-posterior and vertebrobasilar circulations without notable arterial cutoffs and with robust collaterals. Small branches (<0.5 mm) and perforating arteries were consistently opacified with good patency. Three device passes were performed to achieve recanalization, with failure modes including elongation, fragmentation, and distal embolization.CONCLUSIONS:
This model enables concurrent transmural and angiographic analysis of artery-clot-device interaction in a human brain and provides critical insights into the action mechanism and failure modes of current and upcoming thrombectomy devices.
Asymmetries in the circle of Willis have been associated with several conditions, including migraines and stroke, but they may also be age-dependent. This study examined the impact of age and age-dependent changes in cerebral perfusion on circle of Willis anatomy in healthy children and adults.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We performed an observational, cross-sectional study of bright and black-blood imaging of the proximal cerebral vasculature using TOF-MRA and T2 sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolution (T2-SPACE) imaging at the level of the circle of Willis in 23 healthy children and 43 healthy adults (4–74 years of age). We compared arterial diameters measured manually and cerebral perfusion via pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling between children and adults.RESULTS:
We found that the summed cross-sectional area of the circle of Willis is larger in children than in adults, though the effect size was smaller with T2-SPACE-based measurements than with TOF-MRA. The circle of Willis is also more symmetric in children, and nonvisualized segments occur more frequently in adults than in children. Moreover, the size and symmetry of the circle of Willis correlate with cerebral perfusion.CONCLUSIONS:
Our results demonstrate that the circle of Willis is different in size and symmetry in healthy children compared with adults, likely associated with developmental changes in cerebral perfusion. Further work is needed to understand why asymmetric vasculature develops in some but not all adults.
On the basis of a single multidynamic multiecho sequence acquisition, SyMRI generates a variety of quantitative image data that can characterize tissue-specific properties. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of SyMRI for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of fetal brain maturation.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In 52 fetuses, multidynamic multiecho sequence acquisitions were available. SyMRI was used to perform multidynamic multiecho–based postprocessing. Fetal brain maturity was scored qualitatively on the basis of SyMRI-generated MR imaging data. The results were compared with conventionally acquired T1-weighted/T2-weighted contrasts as a standard of reference. Myelin-related changes in T1-/T2-relaxation time/relaxation rate, proton density, and MR imaging signal intensity of the developing fetal brain stem were measured. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to detect correlations between the following: 1) the gestational age at MR imaging and the fetal brain maturity score, and 2) the gestational age at MR imaging and the quantitative measurements.RESULTS:
SyMRI provided images of sufficient quality in 12/52 (23.08%) (range, 23 + 6–34 + 0) fetal multidynamic multiecho sequence acquisitions. The fetal brain maturity score positively correlated with gestational age at MR imaging (SyMRI: r = 0.915, P < .001/standard of reference: r = 0.966, P < .001). Myelination-related changes in the T2 relaxation time/T2 relaxation rate of the medulla oblongata significantly correlated with gestational age at MR imaging (T2-relaxation time: r = –0.739, P = .006/T2-relaxation rate: r = 0.790, P = .002).CONCLUSIONS:
Fetal motion limits the applicability of multidynamic multiecho–based postprocessing. However, SyMRI-generated image data of sufficient quality enable the qualitative assessment of maturity-related changes of the fetal brain. In addition, quantitative T2 relaxation time/T2 relaxation rate mapping characterizes myelin-related changes of the brain stem prenatally. This approach, if successful, opens novel possibilities for the evaluation of structural and biochemical aspects of fetal brain maturation.
The acute phase of aneurysmal SAH is characterized by a plethora of impending complications with the potential to worsen patients’ outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an elaborated CTP-based imaging protocol during the acute aneurysmal SAH phase is able to prevent delayed infarctions and contribute to a better outcome.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In 2012, an elaborated CTP-based protocol was implemented for the management of patients with aneurysmal SAH. Retrospective analysis of patients with aneurysmal SAH treated from 2010 to 2013 was performed, comparing the patients treated before (group one, 2010–2011) with those treated after the protocol implementation (group two, 2012–2013) with regard to delayed infarctions and outcome according to the mRS at 3-months’ follow-up.RESULTS:
A total of 133 patients were enrolled, of whom 57 were included in group 1, and 76, in group 2. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning baseline characteristics. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of a good outcome (mRS ≤ 2) were younger age (P < .001), lower World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade (P < .001), absence of delayed infarction (P = .01), and management according to the CTP protocol (P = .01). Larger or multiple infarctions occurred significantly more often in group 1 compared with group 2 (88% versus 33% of all delayed infarctions, P = .03). The outcome in group 2 was significantly better compared with group 1 (P = .005).CONCLUSIONS:
The findings suggest that implementation of an elaborated CTP protocol is associated with a better outcome. An earlier initiation of further diagnostics and treatment with prevention of large territorial and/or multiple infarctions might have led to this finding.