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Brain CTP is used to estimate infarct and penumbra volumes to determine endovascular treatment eligibility for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a Bayesian CTP algorithm in determining penumbra and final infarct volumes.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Data were retrospectively collected for 105 patients with acute ischemic stroke (55 patients with successful recanalization [TICI 2b/2c/3] and large-vessel occlusions and 50 patients without interventions). Final infarct volumes were calculated using DWI and FLAIR 24 hours following CTP imaging. RAPID and the Vitrea Bayesian CTP algorithm (with 3 different settings) predicted infarct and penumbra volumes for comparison with final infarct volumes to assess software performance. Vitrea settings used different combinations of perfusion maps (MTT, TTP, CBV, CBF, delay time) for infarct and penumbra quantification. Patients with and without interventions were included for assessment of predicted infarct and penumbra volumes, respectively.RESULTS:
RAPID and Vitrea default setting had the most accurate final infarct volume prediction in patients with interventions ([Spearman correlation coefficient, mean infarct difference] default versus FLAIR: [0.77, 4.1 mL], default versus DWI: [0.72, 4.7 mL], RAPID versus FLAIR: [0.75, 7.5 mL], RAPID versus DWI: [0.75, 6.9 mL]). Default Vitrea and RAPID were the most and least accurate in determining final infarct volume for patients without an intervention, respectively (default versus FLAIR: [0.76, –0.4 mL], default versus DWI: [0.71, –2.6 mL], RAPID versus FLAIR: [0.68, –49.3 mL], RAPID versus DWI: [0.65, –51.5 mL]).CONCLUSIONS:
Compared with RAPID, the Vitrea default setting was noninferior for patients with interventions and superior in penumbra estimation for patients without interventions as indicated by mean infarct differences and correlations with final infarct volumes.
The ICA is the most common site of cervical artery dissection. Prompt and reliable identification of the mural hematoma is warranted when a dissection is clinically suspected. The purpose of this study was to assess to capacity of a standard DWI sequence acquired routinely on the brain to detect dissecting hematoma related to cervical ICA dissections.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This was a retrospective study of a cohort of 110 patients younger than 55 years of age (40 women; mean age, 46.79 years) admitted at the acute phase of a neurologic deficit, headache, or neck pain and investigated by at least a standard 3T diffusion-weighted sequence of the brain. Among them were 50 patients (14 women; mean age, 46.72 years) with subsequently confirmed ICA dissection. In the whole anonymized cohort, both a senior and junior radiologist separately assessed, on the DWI sequences only, the presence of a crescent-shaped or circular hypersignal projecting on the subpetrosal segment of the ICA arteries, assuming that it would correspond to a mural hematoma related to an ICA dissection.RESULTS:
The senior radiologist found 46 subpetrosal hyperintensities in 43/50 patients with ICA dissection and none in patients without dissection (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 100%). The junior radiologist found 48 subpetrosal hyperintensities in 45/50 patients with dissection and none in patients without dissection (sensitivity, 90%; specificity, 100%).CONCLUSIONS:
In our cohort, a standard DWI sequence performed on the brain at the acute phase of a stroke or for a clinical suspicion of dissection detected nearly 90% of cervical ICA dissections.
Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage is a common complication of prematurity. An underrecognized complication of germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage is superficial siderosis, and the clinical consequences of superficial siderosis are not well-known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, anatomic distribution, and severity of superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis in premature infants with germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage using SWI.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In this retrospective study, we included 88 patients across all grades of germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage who underwent MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Images were evaluated for the presence, distribution, and severity of superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis. The agreement among T1, T2, and SWI sequences was examined.RESULTS:
Seventy-two patients had brain stem superficial siderosis, and 79 patients had ependymal siderosis. The presence, extent, and severity of superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis were closely related to the grade of germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage and intraventricular hematoma volume. Brain stem superficial siderosis had a stronger correlation with intraventricular hemorrhage than with cerebellar hemorrhage. Compared with SWI, T1 and T2 sequences detected only small proportions of patients with superficial siderosis (12.5% and 6.9%, respectively).CONCLUSIONS:
The incidence of superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis is very high in preterm infants with germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage when assessed by SWI at term-equivalent age. The presence and extent of superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis are closely related to germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage grade and intraventricular hematoma volume. Additional prospective studies using SWI are needed to clearly determine the clinical consequences of germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage with superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis.