AJNR News Digest
Go to AJNR News
Otalgia is very common, and when the cause of ear pain is not identified on otoscopy and physical examination, cross-sectional imaging is routinely used to evaluate for potential sources of referred ear pain (secondary otalgia). Innervation of the ear structures is complex, involving multiple upper cervical, lower cranial, and peripheral nerves, which transit and innervate a large anatomic territory involving the brain, spine, skull base, aerodigestive tract, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses, face, orbits, deep spaces of the neck, skin, and viscera. Interpreting radiologists must be familiar with these neural pathways and potential sources of secondary otalgia. The purposes of this review are to detail the currently proposed mechanisms of referred ear pain, review the salient neuroanatomy of the complex pathways responsible for secondary otalgia, highlight important benign and malignant etiologies of referred ear pain, and provide a structured search pattern for approaching these challenging cases on cross-sectional imaging.
Paraneoplastic syndromes are systemic reactions to neoplasms mediated by immunologic or hormonal mechanisms. The most well-recognized paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome, both clinically and on imaging, is limbic encephalitis. However, numerous additional clinically described syndromes affect the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Many of these syndromes can have imaging findings that, though less well described, are important in making the correct diagnosis. Moreover, imaging in these syndromes frequently mimics more common pathology, which can be a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Our goal is to review the imaging findings of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes, including less well-known entities and atypical presentations of common entities. Specifically, we discuss limbic encephalitis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis, cranial neuropathy, myelitis, and polyneuropathy. We also demonstrate common diagnostic pitfalls that can be encountered when imaging these patients.
The role of the dural venous sinus system in cerebrovascular pathology and the understanding of normal developmental patterns and sizes of the dural venous sinus system continue to expand. The purpose of this study was to review MR venograms to elucidate developmental patterns and diameters of the major dural venous sinuses from 0 to 20 years of age.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
All available MR venograms of patients 0–20 years of age who presented to our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patient age at the time of image acquisition was noted, and measurements were taken of the diameters of the major dural venous sinuses. The presence of embryonic sinuses including the persistent falcine sinus and the occipital sinus was noted. Dominance patterns of the transverse sinus system were determined. Mean diameters of each sinus were plotted as a function of age. The prevalence of persistent prenatal sinuses and transverse sinus–dominance patterns was compared across ages.RESULTS:
A total of 429 MR venograms from 429 patients were reviewed. All dural venous sinuses demonstrated a maximal growth rate from 0 to 7 years of age and reached maximal diameters around 5–10 years of age. The prevalence of falcine sinuses and occipital sinuses trended downward across increasing age categories (P = .09 and, <.0001, respectively).CONCLUSIONS:
Dural venous sinuses demonstrate maximal growth between 0 and 7 years of age and reach adult size around 5–10 years of age. Involution of the prenatal sinuses continues to take place after birth into childhood but is largely absent in early adulthood.
Endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke is often performed with the patient under conscious sedation. Emergent conversion from conscious sedation to general anesthesia is sometimes necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the functional outcome in converted patients compared with patients who remained in conscious sedation and to identify predictors associated with the risk of conversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Data from 368 patients, included in 3 trials randomizing between conscious sedation and general anesthesia before endovascular therapy (SIESTA, ANSTROKE, and GOLIATH) constituted the study cohort. Twenty-one (11%) of 185 patients randomized to conscious sedation were emergently converted to general anesthesia.RESULTS:
Absence of hyperlipidemia seemed to be the strongest predictor of conversion to general anesthesia, albeit a weak predictor (area under curve = 0.62). Sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, size of the infarct, and level and side of the occlusion were not significantly associated with conversion to general anesthesia. Neither age (mean age, 71.3 ± 13.8 years for conscious sedation versus 71.6 ± 12.3 years for converters, P = .58) nor severity of stroke (mean NIHSS score, 17 ± 4 versus 18 ± 4, respectively, P = .27) were significantly different between converters and those who tolerated conscious sedation. The converters had significantly worse outcome with a common odds ratio of 2.67 (P = .015) for a shift toward a higher mRS score compared with the patients remaining in the conscious sedation group.CONCLUSIONS:
Patients undergoing conversion had significantly worse outcome compared with patients remaining in conscious sedation. No factor was identified that predicted conversion from conscious sedation to general anesthesia.
Although developmental venous anomalies have been frequently studied in adults and occasionally in children, data regarding these entities are scarce in neonates. We aimed to characterize clinical and neuroimaging features of neonatal developmental venous anomalies and to evaluate any association between MR imaging abnormalities in their drainage territory and corresponding angioarchitectural features.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We reviewed parenchymal abnormalities and angioarchitectural features of 41 neonates with developmental venous anomalies (20 males; mean corrected age, 39.9 weeks) selected through a radiology report text search from 2135 neonates who underwent brain MR imaging between 2008 and 2019. Fetal and longitudinal MR images were also reviewed. Neurologic outcomes were collected. Statistics were performed using 2, Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney U, or t tests corrected for multiple comparisons.RESULTS:
Developmental venous anomalies were detected in 1.9% of neonatal scans. These were complicated by parenchymal/ventricular abnormalities in 15/41 cases (36.6%), improving at last follow-up in 8/10 (80%), with normal neurologic outcome in 9/14 (64.2%). Multiple collectors (P = .008) and larger collector caliber (P < .001) were significantly more frequent in complicated developmental venous anomalies. At a patient level, multiplicity (P = .002) was significantly associated with the presence of ≥1 complicated developmental venous anomaly. Retrospective fetal detection was possible in 3/11 subjects (27.2%).CONCLUSIONS:
One-third of neonatal developmental venous anomalies may be complicated by parenchymal abnormalities, especially with multiple and larger collectors. Neuroimaging and neurologic outcomes were favorable in most cases, suggesting a benign, self-limited nature of these vascular anomalies. A congenital origin could be confirmed in one-quarter of cases with available fetal MR imaging.