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1. Graff-Radford J, Lesnick T, Rabinstein AA, et al. Cerebral microbleeds: relationship to antithrombotic medications. Stroke 2021;52:2347–55. Available from: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031515
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and are associated with increased risk of dementia and mortality. The prevalence of CMBs increases significantly with age, approaching forty percent by the age of 80 years. Established risk factors for CMBs include age, male sex, and hypertension. Antithrombotic medications have also been associated with increased risk of developing CMBs, but few population-based studies have evaluated this association. The authors sought to determine in a population-based study whether antithrombotic medications correlate with CMBs and, if present, whether the association was direct or mediated by another variable.
The study consisted of 1253 participants from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent T2* gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. They tested the relationship between antithrombotic medications and CMB presence and location, using multivariable logistic-regression models.
Two hundred ninety-five participants (26.3%) had CMBs. Among 678 participants taking only antiplatelet medications, 185 (27.3%) had CMBs. Among 95 participants taking only an anticoagulant, 43 (45.3%) had CMBs. Among 44 participants taking an anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, 21 (48.8%) had CMBs. Anticoagulants correlated with the presence and frequency of CMBs, whereas antiplatelet agents were not. Structural equation models showed that predictors for presence/ absence of CMBs included older age at magnetic resonance imaging, male sex, and anticoagulant use.
They conclude that anticoagulant use correlated with presence of CMBs in the general population.
4 tables, 2 figures, no imaging
2. Preziosa P, Rocca MA, Filippi M. Central vein sign and iron rim in multiple sclerosis: ready for clinical use? Curr Opin Neurol 2021;34:505–13. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000946
The pathological hallmark of MS is the formation of demyelinating white matter lesions around venules. Cerebral veins and their …
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1. Alomari S, Lubelski D, Sacino AN, et al. Does myelopathy increase the morbidity and mortality of elective single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion? An updated propensity-matched analysis of 3938 patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Neurosurgery 2021;89:109–15
This present study used the American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database to examine the effect of myelopathy on early morbidity and mortality after elective single-level ACDF. They employed a propensity score matching analysis to minimize the effects of any preoperative characteristic differences between the 2 cohorts. The authors hypothesized that patients undergoing ACDF for myelopathy versus radiculopathy would be significantly associated with worse postoperative outcomes.
Twenty percent of the cohort was myelopathic. These patients were significantly older, had more comorbidities, more likely to be functionally dependent, and to undergo emergency surgery when compared to the nonmyelopathic cohort. When 1969 myelopathic patients were 1:1 propensity matched with non-myelopathic patients, there was no difference between the myelopathic and nonmyelopathic patients in incidence of postoperative intensive care unit admission or death. Patients in the myelopathic group were significantly more likely to have a nonhome discharge and less likely to be discharged on the first postoperative day. Myelopathic patients had a higher rate of return to operating room within the same admission (2.2%) as well as a higher unplanned readmission rate (4.2%). The total operation time (143 min) and average length of hospital stay (52 h) were significantly higher in the myelopathic group when compared to the nonmyelopathic group (117 min) and (33 h), respectively.
Patients with myelopathy who undergo elective single-level ACDF have higher risks of several perioperative events including longer operative time, longer hospital stay, higher return to operating room, and unplanned readmission rates, when compared to nonmyelopathic patients.
The authors used …
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1. Ng WT, Tsang RKY, Beitler JJ, et al. Contemporary management of the neck in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck 2021;43:1949–63. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hed.26685
For patients who present with suspicious cervical lymphadenopathy, especially in the endemic regions where NPC is prevalent, initial examination may be endoscopic examination and biopsy of the NP, rather than fine-needle aspiration of the neck mass. Subsequent work up includes appropriate biopsy of the primary tumor and/or the node, physical examination with particular attention to cranial nerve function, plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA, CT scanning, MR, and FDG-PET. Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy remains the primary modality of treatment, while surgery is reserved for persistent nodal disease or relapse.
With improvement in radiological diagnostic accuracy and better characterization of the natural history of NPC nodal spread, continual refinements have been suggested in the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system. Among the various nodal features, recent data suggest that nodal volume, ECE, nodal necrosis, and parotid node involvement carry adverse prognostic significance. Selective nodal irradiation according to individual nodal risk has been increasingly adopted, and early data based on this approach appear promising. Furthermore, gradient dose prescription using a lower dose elective nodal irradiation (ENI) to subclinical regions may serve a potentially useful strategy for dose de-escalation with the objective of reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Amidst excellent nodal control with IMRT, salvage neck surgery remains the standard of care for patients who develop nodal failure, and continued research is required to define the extent of neck dissection and the role of adjuvant therapy after salvage neck surgery.
4 tables, 1 figure
2. Sabiq F, Huang K, Patel A, et al. Novel imaging classification system of nodal disease in human papillomavirus‐mediated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma prognostic of patient outcomes. Head Neck 2021;43:1854–63. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hed.26657
Matted nodes in …
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Malhotra A, Gandhi D, eds. Mukherji SK, consulting ed. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America: Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging. Theclinics.com; 2021;31(2):139–264; $397.00
The May 2021 issue of the Neuroimaging Clinics of North America concerns neurovascular imaging and is entitled Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging. Edited by Drs. Malhotra and Gandhi, this issue contains 10 chapters with contributions from 25 authors.
What makes this publication valuable is that it addresses issues and topics that neuroradiologists face multiple times each day, such as detecting and dealing with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, imaging of vasospasm, extracranial vascular disease (with emphasis on plaque imaging), subarachnoid hemorrhage without a known cause, ischemic stroke with common parameters on MRI and CT, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, AVMs, vessel wall imaging in intracranial vascular disease, and the use of CT algorithms in acute ischemic stroke.
While the chapter on unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) reviews some important points such as those related to eventual rupture/growth or key factors in describing aneurysms, the lack of any images to illustrate the authors’ points is a disappointment. There are innumerable features the authors describe but apparently decided not to show; such illustrations would have resulted in a greater impact of this material. On the other hand, the authors summarize the literature (evidence-based data) on UIAs. It is clear by the volume of studies in the literature and criteria used that many unanswered questions on management and aneurysm evaluation remain.
Documenting vasospasm and diagnosing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) are briefly discussed and important points re: Doppler US, DSA, CTA, and pCT are made. Better depiction of vasospasm should have been made, using larger formatted DSA imaging combined with properly placed labels.
The segment on extracranial vascular disease discusses and illustrates the important observations regarding arterial narrowing and plaque formation. The authors of this chapter do not illustrate important …
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Henderson JK, Henderson MA. Arthur Schüller: Founder of Neuroradiology. A Life on Two Continents. Hybrid Publishers; 2021; 218 pp; $18.41
While radiologists (mostly those in the older age group) recognize the name “Schüller” to be associated with the lateral oblique view of the mastoid air cells, the contributions of Arthur Schüller go far beyond a single eponym in radiography. This biography traces the life of Arthur Schüller from his birth in 1874 in Brno in what is now the Czech Republic to his death in Melbourne, Australia in 1972. The triumphs and tragedies that unfolded in this 98-year odyssey are revealing not only from a medical/radiologic/neurosurgical standpoint, but also from a historical perspective, since his life and the life of his family spanned a lengthy period in Europe, part of which was gruesome nearly beyond description.
This biography was written jointly by John Keith Henderson (a now-deceased neurosurgeon from Melbourne) and his son, Michael Henderson (a surgical oncologist). The life of Schüller was chronicled over years by John Henderson, a man who worked with Schüller and greatly admired his work and contributions to the neurologic sciences.
This brief review serves not to summarize the life of Arthur Schüller, his family, and his associates, but instead is intended to pique the curiosity of those who are interested in understanding why Schüller has been considered the founder of neuroradiology. Contained in this book is a history lesson concerning Europe, the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, anti-Semitism, the rise of national socialism in Germany, and the atrocities that accompanied nazism during the early to mid-20th century.
During his years as a student in Vienna and in the time after graduation, Arthur’s intellectual curiosity and talents (music among them) were significant and helped shape approaches to neurologic disorders, and he was the first to describe the …
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