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In the field of interventional neuroradiology, antiplatelet agents are commonly used to prepare patients before the implantation of permanent endovascular materials. Among the available drugs, clopidogrel is the most frequently used one, but resistance phenomena are considered to be relatively common. Prasugrel and ticagrelor were recently added to the pharmacologic arsenal, but the safety of these agents in patients undergoing neurointerventional procedures is still a subject of discussion. The cumulative experience with both drugs is less extensive than that with clopidogrel, and the experience with patients in the neurology field is less extensive than in the cardiology domain. In the present article, we provide a narrative review of studies that investigated safety issues of oral P2Y12 inhibitors in interventional neuroradiology and discuss potential routes for future research.
Results regarding the association of thrombus length, stent retriever length, and recanalization success in patients with acute ischemic stroke are inconsistent. We hypothesized that the ratio of thrombus length to stent retriever length may be of particular relevance.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing stent retriever thrombectomy at our institution between January 2010 and December 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Thrombus length was assessed by measuring the susceptibility vessel sign on SWI using a 1.5T or 3T MR imaging scanner. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the association between thrombus length, stent retriever length, and thrombus length/stent retriever length ratio with first-pass recanalization, overall recanalization, and embolization in new territories. Results are shown as adjusted ORs with 95% CIs. Additional mediation analyses were performed to test for indirect effects on first-pass recanalization and overall recanalization success.RESULTS:
The main analysis included 418 patients (mean age, 74.9 years). Increasing stent retriever length was associated with first-pass recanalization. Decreasing thrombus length and lower thrombus length/stent retriever length ratios were associated with first-pass recanalization and overall recanalization. Thrombus length and stent retriever length showed no association with first-pass recanalization or overall recanalization once thrombus length/stent retriever length ratio was factored in, while thrombus length/stent retriever length ratio remained a significant factor in both models (adjusted OR, 0.316 [95% CI, 0.112–0.892]; P = .030 and adjusted OR, = 0.366 [95% CI, 0.194–0.689]; P = .002). Mediation analyses showed that decreasing thrombus length and increasing stent retriever length had a significant indirect effect on first-pass recanalization mediated through thrombus length/stent retriever length ratio. The only parameter associated with embolization in new territories was an increasing thrombus length/stent retriever length ratio (adjusted OR, 5.079 [95% CI, 1.332–19.362]; P = .017).CONCLUSIONS:
Information about thrombus and stent length is more valuable when combined. High thrombus length/stent retriever length ratios, which may raise the risk of unsuccessful recanalization and embolization in new territories, should be avoided by adapting stent retriever selection to thrombus length whenever possible.
Spinal vascular shunts, including fistulas and malformations, are rare and complex vascular lesions for which multiple classification schemes have been proposed. The most widely adopted scheme consists of 4 types: type I, dural AVFs; type II, intramedullary glomus AVMs; type III, juvenile/metameric AVMs; and type IV, intradural perimedullary AVFs. MR imaging and angiography techniques permit detailed assessment of spinal arteriovenous shunts, though DSA is the criterion standard for delineating vascular anatomy and treatment planning. Diagnosis is almost exclusively based on imaging, and features often mimic more common pathologies. The radiologist’s recognition of spinal vascular shunts may improve outcomes because patients may benefit from early intervention.
In this third review article on the endovascular management of intracranial dural AVFs, we discuss transvenous embolization approaches. Transvenous embolization is increasingly popular and now the first-line approach for ventral dural AVFs involving the cavernous sinus and hypoglossal canal. In addition, transvenous embolization is increasingly used in lateral epidural dural AVFs in high-risk locations such as the petrous and ethmoid regions. The advantage of transvenous embolization in these locations is the ability to retrogradely embolize the draining vein and fistula while reducing the risk of ischemic cranial neuropathy or brain parenchymal infarction commonly feared from a transarterial approach. By means of coils ± ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, transvenous embolization can achieve angiographic cure rates of 80%–90% in ventral locations. Potential complications include transient cranial neuropathy, neurologic deterioration due to venous outflow obstruction, and perforation while navigating pial veins. Transvenous embolization should be considered when dural AVFs arise in proximity to the vasa nervosum or extracranial-intracranial anastomoses.
Exponential technologic advancements in imaging, high-performance computing, and artificial intelligence, in addition to increasing access to vast amounts of diverse data, have revolutionized the role of imaging in medicine. Radiomics is defined as a high-throughput feature-extraction method that unlocks microscale quantitative data hidden within standard-of-care medical imaging. Radiogenomics is defined as the linkage between imaging and genomics information. Multiple radiomics and radiogenomics studies performed on conventional and advanced neuro-oncology image modalities show that they have the potential to differentiate pseudoprogression from true progression, classify tumor subgroups, and predict recurrence, survival, and mutation status with high accuracy. In this article, we outline the technical steps involved in radiomics and radiogenomics analyses with the use of artificial intelligence methods and review current applications in adult and pediatric neuro-oncology.