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In traumatic spinal cord injury, DTI is sensitive to injury but is unable to differentiate multiple pathologies. Axonal damage is a central feature of the underlying cord injury, but prominent edema confounds its detection. The purpose of this study was to examine a filtered DWI technique in patients with acute spinal cord injury.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The MR imaging protocol was first evaluated in a cohort of healthy subjects at 3T (n = 3). Subsequently, patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury (n = 8) underwent filtered DWI concurrent with their acute clinical MR imaging examination <24 hours postinjury at 1.5T. DTI was obtained with 25 directions at a b-value of 800 s/mm2. Filtered DWI used spinal cord–optimized diffusion-weighting along 26 directions with a "filter" b-value of 2000 s/mm2 and a "probe" maximum b-value of 1000 s/mm2. Parallel diffusivity metrics obtained from DTI and filtered DWI were compared.RESULTS:
The high-strength diffusion-weighting perpendicular to the cord suppressed signals from tissues outside of the spinal cord, including muscle and CSF. The parallel ADC acquired from filtered DWI at the level of injury relative to the most cranial region showed a greater decrease (38.71%) compared with the decrease in axial diffusivity acquired by DTI (17.68%).CONCLUSIONS:
The results demonstrated that filtered DWI is feasible in the acute setting of spinal cord injury and reveals spinal cord diffusion characteristics not evident with conventional DTI.
Many patients with dementia may have comorbid or misdiagnosed normal pressure hydrocephalus, a treatable neurologic disorder. The callosal angle is a validated biomarker for normal pressure hydrocephalus with 93% diagnostic accuracy. Our purpose was to develop and evaluate an algorithm for automatically computing callosal angles from MR images of the brain.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This article reports the results of analyzing callosal angles from 1856 subjects with 5264 MR images from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative databases. Measurement variability was examined between 2 neuroradiologists (n = 50) and between manual and automatic measurements (n = 281); from differences in simulated head orientation; and from real-world changes in patients with multiple examinations (n = 906). We evaluated the effectiveness of the automatic callosal angle to differentiate normal pressure hydrocephalus from Alzheimer disease in a simulated cohort.RESULTS:
The algorithm identified that 12.4% of subjects from these carefully screened cohorts had callosal angles of <90°, a published threshold for possible normal pressure hydrocephalus. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 for agreement between neuroradiologists and 0.90 for agreement between manual and automatic measurement. The method was robust to different head orientations. The median coefficient of variation for repeat examinations was 4.2% (Q1 = 3.1%, Q3 = 5.8%). The simulated classification of normal pressure hydrocephalus versus Alzheimer using the automatic callosal angle had an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.87 each.CONCLUSIONS:
In even the most pristine research databases, analyses of the callosal angle indicate that some patients may have normal pressure hydrocephalus. The automatic callosal angle measurement can rapidly and objectively screen for normal pressure hydrocephalus in patients who would otherwise be misdiagnosed.
Third and fourth branchial apparatus anomalies are rare congenital anomalies. The purpose of this study was to investigate imaging features of these lesions on fetal MR imaging in comparison with lymphatic malformations, the major competing differential diagnosis in these cases.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A retrospective review of our institutional fetal MR imaging database between 1997 and 2019 resulted in 4 patients with confirmed third and fourth branchial apparatus anomalies and 14 patients with confirmed lymphatic malformations. The imaging features were reviewed by consensus, and the Fisher exact test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences between these 2 populations.RESULTS:
Four cases of third and fourth branchial apparatus anomalies were imaged at 29 weeks 1 day (range, 23 weeks 1 day to 33 weeks 4 days). All 4 cases demonstrated unilateral, unilocular cysts without reduced diffusion or hemorrhage and a medially directed beaked contour that tapered between the spine and airway at the level of the piriform sinus. Compared with 14 cases of fetal lymphatic malformations imaged at 27 weeks 6 days (range, 21 weeks 3 days to 34 weeks 6 days), third and fourth branchial apparatus cysts were significantly more likely to be unilocular (P < .005) and to have a medially beaked contour (P < .005). The combination of features of unilateral, unilocular, and medially beaked contour was observed only in the fetuses with third and fourth branchial apparatus cysts (P < .001).CONCLUSIONS:
The presence of a left-sided unilocular cyst with a medially beaked contour tapering at the level of the piriform sinus suggests the diagnosis of third and fourth branchial apparatus anomaly. Accurate diagnosis in the prenatal period allows proper counseling, genetic work-up, and treatment, potentially sparing patients from recurrent infections and associated morbidity.
Neuroimaging has an important role in detecting CNS involvement in children with systemic or CNS isolated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We characterized a cohort of pediatric patients with CNS hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis focusing on neuroradiologic features and assessed whether distinct MR imaging patterns and genotype correlations can be recognized.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We retrospectively enrolled consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with CNS involvement treated at 2 pediatric neurology centers between 2010 and 2018. Clinical and MR imaging data were analyzed.RESULTS:
Fifty-seven children (40 primary, 70%) with a median age of 36 months (interquartile range, 5.5–80.8 months) were included. One hundred twenty-three MR imaging studies were assessed, and 2 broad imaging patterns were identified. Pattern 1 (significant parenchymal disease, 32/57, 56%) was seen in older children (P = .004) with worse clinical profiles. It had 3 onset subpatterns: multifocal white matter lesions (21/32, 66%), brainstem predominant disease (5, 15%), and cerebellitis (6, 19%). All patients with the brainstem pattern failed to meet the radiologic criteria for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. An attenuated imaging phenotype (pattern 2) was seen in 25 patients (44%, 30 studies) and was associated with younger age.CONCLUSIONS:
Distinct MR imaging patterns correlating with clinical phenotypes and possible genetic underpinnings were recognized in this cohort of pediatric CNS hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Disruptive mutations and missense mutations with absent protein expression correlate with a younger onset age. Children with brainstem and cerebellitis patterns and a negative etiologic work-up require directed assessment for CNS hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Arterial sclerosis resulting from hypertension slows CSF transportation in the perivascular spaces, showing the intrinsic relationship between the CSF and the blood vasculature. However, the exact effect of hypertension on human CSF flow dynamics remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate CSF flow dynamics in treatment-naive patients with essential hypertension using phase-contrast cine MR imaging.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study included 60 never-treated patients with essential hypertension and 60 subjects without symptomatic atherosclerosis. CSF flow parameters, such as forward flow volume, forward peak velocity, reverse flow volume, reverse peak velocity, average flow, and net flow volume, were measured with phase-contrast cine MR imaging. Differences between the 2 groups were assessed to determine the independent determinants of these CSF flow parameters.RESULTS:
Forward flow volume, forward peak velocity, reverse flow volume, reverse peak velocity, and average flow in the patients with hypertension significantly decreased (all, P < .05). Increasing systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with lower forward flow volume (β = –0.44 mL/mL/mm Hg; 95% CI, –0.83 to –0.06 mL/mL/mm Hg), forward peak velocity (β = –0.50 cm/s/mm Hg; 95% CI, –0.88 to –0.12 cm/s/mm Hg), reverse flow volume (β = –0.61 mL/mL/mm Hg; 95% CI, –0.97 to –0.26 mL/mL/mm Hg), reverse peak velocity (β = –0.55 cm/s/mm Hg; 95% CI, –0.91–0.18 cm/s/mm Hg), and average flow (β = –0.50 mL/min/mm Hg; 95% CI, –0.93 to –0.08 mL/min/mm Hg).CONCLUSIONS:
The CSF flow dynamics in patients with hypertension are decreased, and increasing systolic blood pressure is strongly associated with lower CSF flow dynamics.