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The hemodynamics associated with cerebral AVMs have a significant impact on their clinical presentation. This study aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic features of AVMs using 3D phase-contrast MR imaging with dual velocity-encodings.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Thirty-two patients with supratentorial AVMs who had not received any previous treatment and had undergone 3D phase-contrast MR imaging were included in this study. The nidus diameter and volume were measured for classification of AVMs (small, medium, or large). Flow parameters measured included apparent AVM inflow, AVM inflow index, apparent AVM outflow, AVM outflow index, and the apparent AVM inflow-to-outflow ratio. Correlation coefficients between the nidus volume and each flow were calculated. The flow parameters between small and other AVMs as well as between nonhemorrhagic and hemorrhagic AVMs were compared.RESULTS:
Patients were divided into hemorrhagic (n = 8) and nonhemorrhagic (n = 24) groups. The correlation coefficient between the nidus volume and the apparent AVM inflow and outflow was .83. The apparent AVM inflow and outflow in small AVMs were significantly smaller than in medium AVMs (P < .001 for both groups). The apparent AVM inflow-to-outflow ratio was significantly larger in the hemorrhagic AVMs than in the nonhemorrhagic AVMs (P = .02).CONCLUSIONS:
The apparent AVM inflow-to-outflow ratio was the only significant parameter that differed between nonhemorrhagic and hemorrhagic AVMs, suggesting that a poor drainage system may increase AVM pressure, potentially causing cerebral hemorrhage.
Recent studies have suggested that maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between maternal obesity during pregnancy and neonatal brain cortical development.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Forty-four healthy women (28 normal-weight, 16 obese) were prospectively recruited at <10 weeks’ gestation, and their healthy full-term neonates (23 boys, 21 girls) underwent brain MR imaging. All pregnant women had their body composition (fat mass percentage) measured at ~12 weeks of pregnancy. All neonates were scanned at ~2 weeks of age during natural sleep without sedation, and their 3D T1-weighted images were postprocessed by the new iBEAT2.0 software. Brain MR imaging segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction and parcellation were completed using age-appropriate templates. Mean cortical thickness for 34 regions in each brain hemisphere defined by the UNC Neonatal Cortical Surface Atlas was measured, compared between groups, and correlated with maternal body fat mass percentage, controlled for neonate sex and race, postmenstrual age at MR imaging, maternal age at pregnancy, and the maternal intelligence quotient and education.RESULTS:
Neonates born to obese mothers showed significantly lower (P ≤ .05, false discovery rate–corrected) cortical thickness in the left pars opercularis gyrus, left pars triangularis gyrus, and left rostral middle frontal gyrus. Mean cortical thickness in these frontal lobe regions negatively correlated (R = –0.34, P = .04; R = –0.50, P = .001; and R = –0.42, P = .01; respectively) with the maternal body fat mass percentage measured at early pregnancy.CONCLUSIONS:
Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with lower neonate brain cortical thickness in several frontal lobe regions important for language and executive functions.
The correlation between imaging findings and clinical status in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension is unclear. We aimed to examine the evolution of idiopathic intracranial hypertension–related MR imaging findings in patients treated with venous sinus stent placement.MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Thirteen patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (median age, 26.9 years) were assessed for changes in the CSF opening pressure, transstenotic pressure gradient, and symptoms after venous sinus stent placement. Optic nerve sheath diameter, posterior globe flattening and/or optic nerve protrusion, empty sella, the Meckel cave, tonsillar ectopia, the ventricles, the occipital emissary vein, and subcutaneous fat were evaluated on MR imaging before and 6 months after venous sinus stent placement. Data are expressed as percentages, medians, or correlation coefficients (r) with P values.RESULTS:
Although all patients showed significant reductions of the CSF opening pressure (31 versus 21 cm H2O; P = .005) and transstenotic pressure gradient (22.5 versus 1.5 mm Hg; P = .002) and substantial improvement of clinical symptoms 6 months after venous sinus stent placement, a concomitant reduction was observed only for posterior globe involvement (61.5% versus 15.4%; P = .001), optic nerve sheath diameter (6.8 versus 6.1 mm; P < .001), and subcutaneous neck fat (8.9 versus 7.4 mm; P = .001). Strong correlations were observed between decreasing optic nerve sheath diameters and improving nausea/emesis (right optic nerve sheath diameter, r = 0.592, P = .033; left optic nerve sheath diameter, r = 0.718, P = .006), improvement of posterior globe involvement and decreasing papilledema (r = 0.775, P = .003), and decreasing occipital emissary vein diameter and decreasing headache frequency (r = 0.74, P = .035). Decreasing transstenotic pressure gradient at 6 months strongly correlated with decreasing empty sella (r = 0.625, P = .022) and regressing cerebellar ectopia (r = 0.662, P = .019).CONCLUSIONS:
Most imaging findings persist long after normalization of intracranial pressure and clinical improvement. However, MR imaging findings related to the optic nerve may reflect treatment success.
Small vessel disease, a disorder of cerebral microvessels, is an expanding epidemic and a common cause of stroke and dementia. Despite being almost ubiquitous in brain imaging, the clinicoradiologic association of small vessel disease is weak, and the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging (STRIVE) criteria have standardized the nomenclature. These include white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes of presumed vascular origin, prominent perivascular spaces, cerebral microbleeds, superficial siderosis, cortical microinfarcts, and brain atrophy. Recently, the rigid categories among cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, stroke, and small vessel disease have become outdated, with a greater emphasis on brain health. Conventional and advanced small vessel disease imaging markers allow a comprehensive assessment of global brain heath. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of small vessel disease neuroimaging nomenclature by means of the STRIVE criteria, clinical implications, the role of advanced imaging, and future directions.
In this second of 3 review articles on the endovascular management of intracranial dural AVFs, we discuss transarterial treatment approaches. The treatment goal is to occlude the fistulous point, including the most distal portion of the arterial supply together with the most proximal portion of the draining vein (ie, the "foot" of the vein), which can be accomplished with liquid embolic agents via transarterial access. Anatomic factors to consider when assessing the safety and efficacy of a transarterial approach using liquid embolic agents include location, angioarchitecture, and proximity of arterial feeders to both the vasa nervosum of adjacent cranial nerves and the external carotid–internal carotid/vertebral artery anastomoses. Anatomic locations typically favorable for transarterial approaches include but are not limited to the transverse/sigmoid sinus, cerebral convexity, and superior sagittal sinus. In this review article, we discuss the technical approaches, outcomes, potential complications, and complication avoidance strategies for transarterial embolization.